The Vedic mathematics from Vedas is an science of calculating faster when there were no calculators and computers and were once used by our ancient scholars to make mathematical calculations faster .
These are one line formulas or what we know it as sutras which not only enrich the computational skills but also provide a new method of dealing mathematical problem of arithmetic and algebra.
The Vedic mathematics sutras or formulas are divided in two main categories.
(a) Vedic sutras that makes arithmetic easy
(b) Vedic sutras that makes algebra easy
Vedic sutras for arithmetic calculations:
Ø Yavadunam : whatever the extent of the deficiency
Ø Paravartya yojavet: Transpose and adjust
Ø Vyasti-samasti: Individuality and adjust
Ø Ekanyunena purvena: one less than the previous one
Ø Antyayordasake’pi: when final digits add up to ten
Ø Guna kasa-muccaya samu-ccaya gunaka: total expression equal to total in the product
Example: To find the complement of 28759 (to the working base 100000)
Solution: Subtract 2 from 9 = 7; 8 from 9 = 1; 7 from 9 = 2; 5 from 9 = 4; 9 from 10=1
The complement thus obtained is 71241
When two numbers end with zero(s) then sutra considers last digit as non- zero and final zero(s) are placed at the end.
Example: Multiply 102 by 95
Solution: Here the working base is 100
Step I: write the numbers and their deficits in respect to 100
Step II: Right part calculations: base + product of deficit
100 + [(-2) x 5] = 100 -10=90
Left part calculations: cross subtraction – 1
[102 – 5] -1 = 97-1=96
So the number is 9690
Multiply 1112 with 998
Here the working base should be taken as 1000
Step I: write the deficits of the number with respect to 1000
Step II: right part: 1000 + (-112 x 2) = 1000-224 = 776
Left part: (1112-2)-1=1109
So the product would be 1109/776 or 1109776